Taste, known scientifically as “gustation,” is the ability of the brain to sense the flavor of items entering the mouth, through their interaction with taste buds, largely located on the tongue. Disorders affecting the sense of taste can cause people to taste flavors that are not present in their mouths (phantom taste perception), lose the ability to taste sweet, sour, bitter, salty and savory flavors (hypogeusia), and lose the ability to taste at all (ageusia).